student asking question

What's "by" mean here and when's it used like this?

teacher

Native speaker’s answer

Rebecca

"By" is preposition that in this case, is used with a verb to indicate the amount or size of a margin or number difference. Here, it's used to express that home product sales increased significantly (by double digits, which means more than 10%). Ex: Net sales increased by 18% in the last six months. Ex: My salary has decreased by 30% due to inflation.

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