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What does "consign" mean? It doesn't seem to have a positive meaning here in this context.

Here, "Consign" means to assign or commit permanently. And you're right. It doesn't have a very positive meaning here, since it implies that the item will never be used and kept in the closet forever. Other meanings of "consign" include: delivering something to someone's custody, or to send goods by a carrier. Ex: I consigned my birthday cards to the third drawer of my dressing table. Ex: I'm consigning one of my artworks to the gallery in town. Ex: The package has been consigned to a courier. It'll arrive tomorrow!

Can I change "in eight hours" to "after eight hours"? Does the meaning stay the same?

Unfortunately, "after eight hours" by itself can't be used because it is not specific enough. The phrase "in eight hours" means "after eight hours from now". Only using "after eight hours" could refer to that eight-hour time frame beginning at any time. An example of how you could use the phrase "after eight hours" is, "After eight hours of sleep, I feel refreshed."

Can I replace "entirely" with "all"?

Yes, in this case you can replace "entirely" with "all". Both "all" and "entirely" are adverbs and they have very similar meanings, so you can often use them interchangeably. However, "entirely" is a bit more formal and can more strongly emphasize that something is complete, whereas "all" does not have the same emphasis. Ex: I spilled the drink all on my shirt. Ex: I spilled the drink entirely on my shirt. Even though "all" means that something is "complete" or "whole", it does not imply that something is totally covered with something because "all" is often used to exaggerate something that is not complete or whole. So when used to describe something complete or whole, "all" sounds less strong.

What does “scared to pieces” mean?

"Scared to pieces" is an idiom that means to be extremely scared. Ex: I was scared to pieces in the haunted house. Ex: She scared me to pieces yesterday.

What is a more formal word for "nonsense"?

Of all the synonyms listed by Wiktionary, the most formal option seems to be "absurdity". As a replacement for nonsense, I'd use the plural, absurdities. *Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.